Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnancy and Its Association With Vitamin D Levels in Normal Term Newborns

Prarthana Karumbaiah Kalengada, Pradeep Gejjegenahalli Channabasappa Maralusiddappa, Vanitha Gowda Mangalavarapet Narayana, Meera Kalkunte Srinath, Gayatridevi Sivasambu



To study the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in uncomplicated full-term pregnancies and to correlate vitamin D deficiency in women during pregnancy with vitamin D level in their full-term, live born neonates.

Materials and Methods:

Hundred consecutive women with full-term, uncomplicated pregnancies, in early stages of labor, and their corresponding neonates were recruited. Details of maternal demography, calcium supplementation, and sun exposure were recorded. Blood samples from the mother and the cord blood samples from the neonates were investigated for serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D.


Serum vitamin D level was < 25 ng/mL in 86% of the mothers; 2 mothers and 2 neonates showed severe deficiency. Vitamin D concentration in mothers was positively and independently associated with sun exposure and serum calcium level but not with other demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive factors. Vitamin D concentration of the neonates correlated with the serum calcium level and vitamin D level of their mothers.


Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in mothers is still high even though India is a tropical country and as a result prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high in term neonates too.

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