Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Retrospective Observational Study

Vineet Kulkarni, Vijay Kulkarni, Pranab Jonnala

Abstract

Aim: To study the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm neonates 

Materials and Methods: This retrospective and analytical study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2015 in neonates diagnosed with ROP. Mothers of all enrolled neonates were interviewed and their complete obstetric and medical history, with emphasis on prenatal, natal, and post¬natal history was obtained. All neonates were subjected to thorough clinical examination including general examina¬tions for vitals, birth trauma, neonatal reflexes, and congenital anomalies and systemic examinations for cardiac, abdominal, chest, and neurologic abnormalities. Screening for ROP was done in accordance with a standard international protocol.

Results and Conclusions: The incidence of ROP in our study (29.5%) is comparable with that of other similar studies. Screening for ROP should be intensified, especially in the presence of risk factors such as low birth weight, prematurity, prolonged oxygen therapy, and sepsis, which can result in the increased incidence of severe stages of ROP. Regular moni-toring and follow up help in early detection of ROP and timely treatment helps prevent further complications.

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