Neurosonography in the Detection of Neurologic Abnormalities in High-Risk Neonates

Vineet Kulkarni, Vijay Kulkarni

Abstract

Background: Preterm neonates are susceptible to neurologic abnormalities such as intracranial hemorrhage, perinatal asphyxia, and congenital anomalies. Early identification of these conditions is important for their proper management. Cranial ultrasonography (USG) is an important tool to diagnose these conditions.

Aim: To detect neurologic abnormalities using cranial USG and evaluate the usefulness of USG as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of neurologic abnormalities in high-risk neonates

Materials and Methods: A total of 104 preterm neonates with suspected neurologic abnormalities were included in this study and were subjected to cranial USG screening.

Results: The most common presentation was lethargy followed by seizures and feed intolerance. Of the 104 preterms, 22.1% were detected with neurologic abnormalities. Among them 8.6% neonates had evidence of germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), 3.8% had periventricular flaring, 2.8% had cerebral edema, and 1.9% neonates were suspected with periventricular leukomalcia. Cranial injuries were mostly found in neonates below 32 weeks of gestational age.

Conclusion: Cranial USG is the best method for initial screening of preterm neonates with suspected neurologic abnormalities. GMH is the most common finding in preterms with suspected cranial injuries. The ideal time for cranial USG study is within the first week of life.

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